Achieving Eco-nomic Security

On Spaceship Earth

 

FOOTNOTES

Introduction

 

 1. Clark, Mary. Contemporary Biology. Second Edition, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, London, Toronto, (1979): p. 528.

 

2. Schneider, Stephen H. Global Warming. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, (1989): p. 20, (Taken from uncorrected proof).

 

3. Brown, Lester R. State of the World 1992. Worldwatch Institute, W.W. Norton and Company, New York, London, (1992): p. 74.

 

4. Ibid. pp. 37-38.

 

5. Ibid.

 

Chapter I

 

No footnotes.

 

Chapter II

 

1. Chopra, Deepak. Quantum Healing: Exploring the Frontiers of Mind/Body Medicine. Bantam Books, New York, (1989): pp. 48-49.

 

Chapter III

 

2. Ladd, Everett Carll. "How Americans View the Environment". Christian Science Monitor. (April 20, 1990): p. 19.

 

3. Miller, John. "The Wrong Shade of Green", Dollars & Sense. No. 185, (April 1993): p.6.

 

4. Holman, Richard L. "World Wire: Environment Wins Over Economy". The Wall Street Journal. Eastern Edition, New York, New York, (May 6, 1992): p. A-11.

 

5. Miller, John. "The Wrong Shade of Green", Dollars & Sense. No. 185, (April 1993): p.9.

 

6. Cannon, James S. The Health Costs Of Air Pollution. (Pre-published Edition), American Lung Association, Washington D.C., (1990): p. 49.

 

7. Wager, Janet S. "How Much Are Fossil Fuels Really Costing You?"  Nucleus. Vol. 15, No. 2, (Summer 1993): p. 7.

 

8. Author's calculations.

 

9. Pasternak, Judy. "Pollution Is Choking Farm Belt". Los Angeles Times. (April 22, 1991): p. A-1.

 

10. Author's calculations based on the figures taken from: Cannon, James S. The Health Costs Of Air Pollution. (Pre-published Edition), American Lung Association, Washington D.C., (1990): p. 49, and Wager, Janet S. "How Much Are Fossil Fuels Really Costing You?" Nucleus. Vol. 15, No. 2, (Summer 1993): p. 7.

 

11. Quoted by Lorin L. Vant-Hull. "Solar Thermal Central Receivers". Solar Today. Vol. 6, No. 6, (Nov./Dec. 1992): p. 15.

 

12 Ibid, p. 16.

 

13. Author's calculations.

 

14 Vant-Hull, Lorin L. "Solar Thermal Central Receivers". Solar Today. Vol. 6, No. 6, (Nov./Dec. 1992): p. 16.

 

15. See index for more entries.

 

16. Russell, Dick. "Empires of Black Gold". New Internationalist. No. 206, (April1990): p. 12.

 

17. Ibid.

 

18. Ibid.

 

19. Magavern, Bill. "A Prescription for Fiscal and Environmental Health". Critical Mass. Vol. 3, No. 1, (May 1993): p. 1.

 

20.  Hubbard, Harold R. "The Real Cost Of Energy". Scientific American. Vol. 264, No. 4, (April 1991): p. 37. Also see Lovins, Hunter et al. Changing America: Blueprint for a New Democracy. (Reprint), Rocky Mountain Institute, Old Snowmass, Colorado, (1992): p. 7.

 

21.  Lovins, Hunter et al. Changing America: Blueprint for a New Democracy. (Reprint), Rocky Mountain Institute, Old Snowmass, Colorado, (1992): p. 7.

 

22. "Eximbank Signs Historic U.S. – Russia Oil and Gas Agreement", BISNIS BULLETIN, U.S. Department of Commerce International Trade Administration, September 1993, pages 1 – 3. "All trade and investment-related U.S. Government agencies, including the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), the Export-Import Bank of the United States, and the Departments of State, Treasury, and Energy participate in the U.S. – Russia Business Development Committee .... OPIC announced it will provide guarantee and insurance support for Texaco's oil well restoration project in Western Siberia.

 

23. Hubbard, Harold R. "The Real Cost Of Energy". Scientific American. Vol. 264, No. 4, (April 1991): p. 37.

 

24. Banks, Howard. Editor, "What's Ahead for Business", Forbes. Vol. 149, No. 5, (March 2, 1992): p. 37.

 

25. Young, John E. "Free-Loading Off Uncle Sam", World Watch. Vol. 5, No. 1, (Jan./Feb.1992): p. 34.

 

26. Ibid.

 

27. Ibid.

 

28. Ibid.

 

29. Simon, Ruth. "The Whole Earth Compost Pile?". Forbes. (May 28, 1990): p. 136.

 

30. "Styrene: Health Effects Of Low-Level Exposure." FASE Reports. Foundation For Advancements In Science And Education, Vol. 2, Winter (1988): p. 2.

 

31. Bashin, Brian Jay. "Bug Bomb Fallout". Harrowsmith. Vol. IV, No. 27, (May/June 1989): p. 44. Also see Ruzicka, Angie. "Is Spraying Pesticides Around Home Worth the Risk of Childhood Leukemia?", The Journal of Pesticide Reform. Vol. 7, No. 3, (Fall 1987): p. 23.

 

32. Ranber, Paul. "Mercury Madness", Sierra. Vol. 77, No. 6, (Nov./Dec. 1992): p. 38.

 

33. Hubbard, Harold R. "The Real Cost of Energy", Scientific American. Vol. 264, No. 4, (April 1991): p. 42.

 

34. Ibid.   

 

35. Ibid.

 

36. Ibid.   

 

37. Ibid.

 

38. Ibid.

 

39. Flavin, Christopher and John E. Young. "Will Clinton Give Industry A Green Edge", World Watch. Vol. 6, No. 1, (Jan./Feb 1993): p. 30.

 

40. Hirschhorn, Joel S. "Cutting Production of Hazardos Waste", Technology Review. Vol. 91, No. 3, (April 1988): p. 55.

 

41. Langone, John. "A Stinking Mess", Time. Vol. 133, No. 1, (Jan. 2, 1989): p. 45.

 

42. Ibid.

 

43. See Index for more entries. (There is no index in this web version.)

 

44. Cohn, Linc and Mary O'Connell. "Dry Cleaning Without Chemicals", In Business. Vol. 15, No. 2, (March/April 1993): p. 39.

 

45. Ibid. p. 38.

 

46. Ibid. p. 39.

 

47. Zuckerman, Seth. "Old forestry", Sierra. Vol. 77, No. 2, (March/April 1992): p. 44.

 

48. Ibid.

 

49. See Index for more entries. (There is no index in this web version.)

 

50. Portola Institute. Energy Primer. Portola Institute, Menlo Park, California, (1974): pp. 115-116. Also see Gever, John et al. Beyond Oil. A Project of Carrying Capacity Inc. Ballinger Publishing Company, Cambridge Massachusetts, (1986): p. 28.

 

51. Gever, John et al. Beyond Oil. A Project of Carrying Capacity Inc. Ballinger Publishing Company, Cambridge Massachusetts, (1986): p. 164.

 

52. World Resources 1992 – 93. The World Resources Institute, The United Nations Environmental Programme, and The United Nations Development Programme, Oxford Press, New York, (1992): pp. 111 – 12.

 

53. Brown, Lester R. Saving The Planet. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, London, (1988): p. 20.

 

54. See Index for more entries. (There is no index in this web version.)

 

55. Repetto, Robert et al. Wasting Assets. Washington D.C., World Resources Institute, (June 1989): p. 2.

 

56. Specifically, the North American Free Trade Aggreement (NAFTA) and the General Aggreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT).

57.  Thompson, David. The Economics of Environmental Protection. Winthrop Publishers Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, (1993): p. 5.

 

58. Miller, G. Tyler. Environmental Science, an Introduction. 2nd Edition, Waldsworth Publishing Co., Belmont, California, (1988): pp. 7-8. Also see David Dickson's, The Politics of Alternative Technology. Universe Books, New York, (1975): p. 19, and Norman Myers. "The Big Squeeze", EarthWatch. Vol. XII, No.VII, (Nov./Dec.): p 27.

 

Chapter VI

 

59. Thompson, David. The Economics of Environmental Protection. Winthrop Publishers Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, (1993): p. 5.

 

60. Author's calculations. Also see Horton, Paul B. et al. The Sociology of Social Problems. Eighth Edition. Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, (1985): p. 412.

 

61. Thompson, David. The Economics of Environmental Protection. Winthrop Publishers Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, (1993): p. 19.

 

62. Author's calculations.

 

63. Miller, John. "The Wrong Shade of Green", Dollars & Sense. No. 185, (April 1993): p. 7.

 

64. Ibid. Also see Udal, James B. "Turning Down The Heat", Sierra. Vol. 74, No. 4, (July/August 1989): p. 30.

 

65. Miller, G. Tyler. Environmental Science, an Introduction. 2nd Edition, Waldsworth Publishing Co., Belmont, California, (1988): pp. 7-8.

 

Chapter V

 

66. Sivard, Ruth Leger, et al. World Military and Social Expenditures 1991. 14th Edition, World Priorities, Washington D.C. (1991): p 10.

 

67. Ibid. p. 26.

 

68. Midgley, Jane. The Women's Budget. October 1, 1991 Edition, The International League for Peace and Freedom, Pennsylvania, p. 8.

 

69. Ibid.

 

70. Ibid.

 

71. Copeland, Jeff and Penelope Wang. "Too Much Oil, Too Little Unity", Newsweek. Vol. 108, (October 27, 1986): p. 88. Also see Karmin, Monroe W. et al. "OPEC Searches for Those Good Old Days", U.S. News & World Report. Vol. 101, (August 18, 1986): p. 35.

 

72. Karmin, Monroe W. et al. "OPEC Searches for Those Good Old Days", U.S. News & World Report. Vol. 101, (August 18, 1986): p. 35.

 

73. Kohl, Wilfrid L., Editor. After the Oil Price Collapse. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, (1988): p. 207.

 

74. Ibid.

 

75. Lovins, Amory and Hunter Lovins. "Winning The Peace", RMI Newsletter. Vol. VII, No. 1, (Spring 1991): p. 1.

 

76. Ibid.

 

77. Ibid.

 

78. Ibid. p. 3.

 

79. Hubbard, Harold R. "The Real Cost of Energy", Scientific American. Vol. 264, No. 4, (April 1991): p.36.

 

80. Lovins, Amory and Hunter Lovins. "Winning The Peace", RMI Newsletter. Vol. VII, No. 1, (Spring 1991): p. 3.

 

81. Ibid.

 

82. Ibid.

 

83. Brown, Lester R., et al. State of the World 1992. Worldwatch Institute, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, London, (1992): p. 144.

 

84. Ibid. p. 145.

 

85. Ibid.

 

86. Ibid.

 

87. Ibid.

 

88. Romm, Joseph J. The Once and Future Superpower. William Morrow and Company, (1992): p. 135.

 

89. Ibid.

 

90. Totten, Michael, et al. The Road to Trillion Dollar Energy Savings. Public Citizen, Washington D.C. (1984): p. 14.

 

91. Midgley, Jane. The Women's Budget. October 1, 1991 Edition, The International League for Peace and Freedom, Pennsylvania, p. 19.

 

92. Totten, Michael, et al. The Road to Trillion Dollar Energy Savings. Public Citizen, Washington D.C. (1984): p. 14.

 

93. Lovins, Amory B. and L. Hunter Lovins. Brittle Power: Energy Strategies for National Security. Brick House Publishing Company, Andover Mass., (1992): p. 129.

 

94. Totten, Michael, et al. The Road to Trillion Dollar Energy Savings. Public Citizen, Washington D.C. (1984): p. 6.

 

95. Lovins, Amory B. and L. Hunter Lovins. Brittle Power: Energy Strategies for National Security. Brick House Publishing Company, Andover Mass., (1992): p. 112.

 

96. Ibid.

 

97. Knight Ridder Newspapers. "Gulf Oil Said Vulnerable to Saboteurs", The San Diego Union. North County Edition, (Tuesday, September 25, 1990): p. A-6.

 

98. Ibid. p. A-1.

 

99. Empty Breadbasket? The Coming Challenge to America's Food Supply and What We Do About It. A Study of the U.S. Food System by the Cornucopia Project of Rodale Press, Emmaus Pennsylvania, (1980): p. 5.

 

100. Author's personal experience.

 

101. See Index for more entries. (There is no index in this web version.)

 

102. It can be argued that natural gas, oil, and to a certain extent, coal would be just as easy to use as fuels in a decentralized power system as biomass where they are locally available. But unlike biomass, which in the process of growing absorbs the CO2 released from prior burnings, fossil fuels are nonrenewable and their combustion adds CO2 to the atmosphere.

 

103. Author's calculations based on a10 percent sunlight into electricity conversion efficiency, an average of 5 hours of sunlight per day through out the year and a daily average consumption of 4.6 to 9.3 kWh with PV arrays of 100 square feet to 200 square feet.

 

104. State of California Department of Water Resources. Evaporation From Water Surfaces. Bulletin No. 73-1, State of California, (May 1974): pp. 26-170.

 

Chapter VI

 

105. Author's calculations assuming an annual population growth of 92 million people per year. Source: Brown, Lester R., et al. State of the World 1992. Worldwatch Institute, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, London, (1992): p. 3.

 

106. Pereira, H.C. Land Use and Water Resources in Temperate and Tropical Climates. University Press, Cambridge England, (1973): p. 25. See index - water security for more details.

 

Chapter VII

 

107. Reisner, Mark. Cadillac Desert. Penguin Books, New York, New York, (1987): pp. 490 – 494. See Index under water security for more info.

 

108. Stobaugh, Robert and Daniel Yergin. Energy Future. Random House, New York, New York, (1979): p. 15.

 

109. Totten, Michael, et al. The Road to Trillion Dollar Energy Savings. Public Citizen, Washington D.C. (1984): p. 16.

 

110. Young, John E. "Acid Rains, Acid Waters", Worldwatch. Vol. 1, No. 5, (September/October 1988): p. 9.

 

111. Totten, Michael, et al. The Road to Trillion Dollar Energy Savings. Public Citizen, Washington D.C. (1984): p. 16.

 

112. Easterbrook, Gregg. "Everything You Know About The Environment Is Wrong", The New Republic. (April 30, 1990): P. 14.

 

113. Totten, Michael, et al. The Road to Trillion Dollar Energy Savings. Public Citizen, Washington D.C. (1984): p. 16.

 

114. Ibid.

 

115. Ibid. pp. 16 – 17.

 

116. Schneider, Stephen H. Global Warming. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, California, (1989): p. 20.

 

117. San Diego Gas and Electric. San Diego Regional Energy Plan (Draft). (8/27/1993): extrapolated from the flow chart on p. 3.

 

118. Newscast – National Public Radio.

 

119. Ibid.

 

120. Brown, Lester R. Saving The Planet. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, London, (1988): p. 60.

 

121. Totten, Michael, et al. The Road to Trillion Dollar Energy Savings. Public Citizen, Washington D.C. (1984): p. 16.

 

122. Ibid. pp. 16 -17.

 

123. Udal, James B. "Turning Down The Heat", Sierra. Vol. 74, No. 4, (July/August 1989): p. 26.

 

124. Shuey, Chris. "Uranium Mines and Their Problems", The Workbook. Southwest Research and Information Center, Vol. X, No. 3, (July/September): p. 113.

 

125. Houston, Paul. "Compensation for Radiation Victims OKd", Los Angeles Times. (September 28, 1990): p. A – 1. This represents a payout of $30 to $50 million.

 

126. Gyorgy, Anna et al. No Nukes. South End Press, Boston, Mass., (1979): p. 103.

 

127. Ibid. p. 106.

 

128. Ibid. p. 45 – 70.

 

129. Hall, Stephen. "Back From The Grave", New Internationalist. No. 206, (April 1990): p. 14. Also see Udal, James B. "Turning Down The Heat", Sierra. Vol. 74, No. 4, (July/August 1989): p. 26.

 

130. Romm, Joseph J. The Once and Future Superpower. William Morrow and Company, (1992): p. 139.

 

131. Ibid. p. 140.

 

132. Tyner, S., Gene et al. "The Net-Energy Yield of Nuclear Power", Pergamon Journals Ltd. Vol. 13, No. 1, (1988): p.73.

 

133. Lovins, Hunter et al. Changing America: Blueprints for a New Democracy. (Reprint), Rocky Mountain Institute, Old Snowmass, Colorado, (1992): p. 12. Also see Romm, Joseph J. The Once and Future Superpower. William Morrow and Company, (1992): p. 139.

 

134. Ibid.

 

135. Ibid.

 

136. Hubbard, Harold R. "The Real Cost of Energy", Scientific American. Vol. 264, No. 4, (April 1991): p. 36.

 

137. Romm, Joseph J. The Once and Future Superpower. William Morrow and Company, (1992): p. 147.

 

138. Ibid. p. 148.

 

139. Wager, Janet S. "How Much Are Fossil Fuels Really Costing You", Nucleus. Vol. 15, No. 2, (Summer 1993): p. 7.

 

140. Bradsher, Keith. "Iraqi Moves Lift Crude To $38.25", The New York Times. (September 25, 1990): p. D -1.

 

141. Banks, Howard. Editor. "What's Ahead For Business", Forbes. Vol. 149, No. 5, (March 2, 1992): p. 37.

 

142. Romm, Joseph J. The Once and Future Superpower. William Morrow and Company, (1992): p. 119.

 

143. Ibid. P. 117.

 

144. Totten, Michael, et al. The Road to Trillion Dollar Energy Savings. Public Citizen, Washington D.C. (1984): p. 2.

 

145. Romm, Joseph J. The Once and Future Superpower. William Morrow and Company, (1992): p. 122.

 

146. Ibid.

 

147. Ibid.

 

148. Totten, Michael, et al. The Road to Trillion Dollar Energy Savings. Public Citizen, Washington D.C. (1984): p. 2.

 

149. Lovins, Amory. "Abating Global Warming – At A Profit". Rocky Mountain Institute Newsletter. Vol. V, No. 3, (Fall 1989): p. 1.

 

150. Ibid.

 

151. Totten, Michael, et al. The Road to Trillion Dollar Energy Savings. Public Citizen, Washington D.C. (1984): p. 2.

 

152. Roodman, David Malin. "Power Brokers: Managing Demand for Electricity", Worldwatch. Vol. 6, No. 6, (Nov./Dec. 1993): p. 26.

 

153. Ibid.

 

154. Ibid.

 

155. Ibid. p. 29.

 

156. Ibid.

 

157. Author's calculations based on figures cited in the text that follows.

 

158. Kreider, Jan F. and Rabl. Heating and Cooling Design for Efficiency. McGraw Hill, p. 3.

 

159. Ibid.

 

160. Ibid.

 

161. Author's calculations based on Figure 1.1, Kreider, Jan F. and Rabl. Heating and Cooling Design for Efficiency. McGraw Hill, p. 4.

 

162. Totten, Michael, et al. The Road to Trillion Dollar Energy Savings. Public Citizen, Washington D.C. (1984): pp. 48 - 49.

 

163. Ibid. p. 49. Also see Scholand, Michael. "Building for the Future", World Watch. Vol. 6, No. 6, (November/December 1993): p. 36.

 

164. "Recycling the Sun". Southwest Contractor. (Sept. 1992): p. 31.

 

165. "Safeway Dims Lighting Costs". Chain Store Age Executive. (Sept. 1986): p. 220.

 

166. Ibid.

 

167. "Recycling the Sun". Southwest Contractor. (Sept. 1992): p. 31.

 

168. Flanigan, Ted, Amory Lovins et al. "U.S. Could Cut Light Bill by 92%". RMI Newsletter. (May 1988): p. 8.

 

169. Romm, Joseph J. The Once and Future Superpower. William Morrow and Company, (1992): p. 124.

 

170. "Big Energy Savings in Commercial Buildings". Energy Information Administration New Releases. Department of Energy, (March/April 1992, Issued – May 1992): p. 1.

 

171. Flanigan, Ted, Amory Lovins et al. "U.S. Could Cut Light Bill by 92%". RMI Newsletter. (May 1988): p. 8.

 

172. Romm, Joseph J. The Once and Future Superpower. William Morrow and Company, (1992): p. 123.

 

173. Hall, Stephen. "Back From The Grave", New Internationalist. No. 206, (April 1990): p. 15.

 

174. Flavin, Christopher. "Yankee Utilities Learn to Love Efficiency". World Watch. Vol. 3, No. 2, (March/April 1990): p. 5.

 

175. Ibid.

 

176. Romm, Joseph J. The Once and Future Superpower. William Morrow and Company, (1992): p. 124.

 

177. Ibid.

 

178. Meyer, Jane and Craig Sieban. "Super Saskatoon". Solar Age. Vol. 7, No. 1, (June 1982): p. 26.

 

179. Ibid. pp. 27-28.

 

180. Ibid. p. 27.

 

181. Ibid. p. 31.

 

182. Arasteh, Dariush and Stephen Selkowitz. "A Superwindow Field Demonstration Program in Northwest Montana". Paper presented at the ASHRA/DOE/BTECC/CIBSE Conference on Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings IV, December 4-7, (1989), Lawrence Livermore Laboratory – 26069, TA – 265, Paper Dated September (1989): p. 1.

 

183. Malin, Nadav. "Building With Straw Bales". Environmental Building News. Vol. 2, No. 3, (May/June 1993): p. 10.

 

184. Ibid.

 

185. Meyer, Jane and Craig Sieban. "Super Saskatoon". Solar Age. Vol. 7, No. 1, (June 1982): p. 31.

 

186. Stobaugh, Robert and Daniel Yergin. Energy Future. Random House, New York, New York, (1979): p. 167.

 

187. David, Bradley J. "Taking The Heat Out of Sunlight – New Advances In Glazing Technology For Commercial Buildings". Paper Presented at the ACEEE 1990 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Asilomar Conference Center, Pacific Grove, Cal. (August 26/September 1, 1990): p. 6.

 

188. Arasteh, Dariush and Stephen Selkowitz. "A Superwindow Field Demonstration Program in Northwest Montana". Paper presented at the ASHRA/DOE/BTECC/CIBSE Conference on Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings IV, December 4-7, (1989), Lawrence Livermore Laboratory – 26069, TA – 265.

Paper Dated September (1989): p. 1,

 

189. Pearlman, Nancy – Editor. "Costa Rica". The Compendium Newsletter. Vol. 20, No. 4, (July/August 1992): p. 14.

 

190. Ibid.

 

191. Author's calculations.

 

192. Carlock, Marty. "Super-Fridge Can Run On Sunshine". Popular Science. Vol. 227, No. 5. (1985): p. 64.

 

193. Cohen, Jon. "Putting the Freeze On Refrigeration Costs". EPRI Journal. (Electric Power Research Institute), Vol. 13, No. 8, (Dec. 1988): p. 16.

 

194. Rocky Mountain Institute Staff. "New Electric Motor Designs Improve Efficiency". Soft Energy Notes. Vol. 1, No. 2, (1978): p. 22. Also see Steve Meyers. "Efficient Motors: Winding Up and Slowing Down". Soft Energy Notes. Vol. 3, No. 2, (1980): pp. 27 – 29.

 

195. Flanigan, Ted et al. "Competitek's Drivepower Report Completed". RMI Newsletter. Vol. 5, No. 2, (1989): p. 6.

 

196. Lovins, Amory B. and  L. Hunter Lovins. Least-cost Energy. 2nd Edition, Brickhouse Publishers, New York, (1981): p. XXII.

 

197. Yeaple, Frank. "Laundry Dryer Recuperator Recovers Valuable Heat". Design News. (May 26, 1989): p. 122.

 

198. Author's calculations based on the use of low flow showerheads and faucet  restrictors that can reduce the energy required to heat water by 70%.

 

199. Mahjouri, Fariborz. "DMS With Solar Hot Water at Baltimore Gas & Electric". Solar Today. Vol. 8, No. 1, (Jan./Feb.1994): p. 23.

 

200. Ibid.

 

201. Stobaugh, Robert and Daniel Yergin. Energy Future. Random House, New York, New York, (1979): p. 154.

 

202. Ibid.

 

203. Romm, Joseph J. The Once and Future Superpower. William Morrow and Company, (1992): p. 122.

 

204. Ibid.

 

205. Ibid. p. 123.

 

206. Author's calculations.

 

207. Author's calculations based on figures taken from Lovins, Amory. Soft Energy Paths. Friends of the Earth International, Ballinger Publishing Company, Cambridge Mass. (1977): p. 75. Total use of electricity by electric drives (motors) in industry – 2.96 quads, divided by 6.67 quads, both figures relate to the amount of electricity used in the U.S. in 1973.

 

208. Flanigan, Ted et al. "Competitek's Drivepower Report Completed". RMI Newsletter. Vol. 5, No. 2, (1989): p. 6. Also see Totten, Michael, et al. The Road to Trillion Dollar Energy Savings. Public Citizen, Washington D.C. (1984): p. 51.

 

209. Telephone conversation with David Singer, president of the Highland Energy Group of Golden Colorado.

 

210. Flanigan, Ted et al. "Competitek's Drivepower Report Completed". RMI Newsletter. Vol. 5, No. 2, (1989): p. 6.

 

211. Flavin, Christopher, Rick Piltz and Chris Nichols. Sustainable Energy. Renew America, Washington D.C., (1988): p. 19.

 

212. Flavin, Christopher. "Yankee Utilities Learn to Love Efficiency". World Watch. Vol. 3, No. 2, (March/April 1990): p. 5.

 

213. Cook, William J. et al. "Standing Up to Oil Shock". U.S. News & World Report. Vol. 109, No. 9, (Aug.27/Sept.3, 1990): p.37.

 

214. Stobaugh, Robert and Daniel Yergin. Energy Future. Random House, New York, New York, (1979): p. 158.

 

215. Author's calculations based on Lovins, Amory B. Soft Energy Paths. Ballinger Publishing Company, Cambridge Mass., (1977): p. 75.

 

216. Stobaugh, Robert and Daniel Yergin. Energy Future. Random House, New York, New York, (1979): p. 160.

 

217. Ibid. p. 159.

 

218. Cook, William J. et al. "Standing Up to Oil Shock". U.S. News & World Report. Vol. 109, No. 9, (Aug.27/Sept.3, 1990): p.37.

 

219. Flavin, Christopher, Rick Piltz and Chris Nichols. Sustainable Energy. Renew America, Washington D.C., (1988): p. 18. Also see Stobaugh, Robert and Daniel Yergin. Energy Future. Random House, New York, New York, (1979): p. 158 and Yukio Suzuki's "Regeneration of the Earth is not an Impossible Dream". The Japan Times Weekly International Edition. Vol. 30, No. 39, (Oct. 1-7, 1990): p. 9.

 

220. Canine, Crag. "The Second Coming of Energy Conservation". Utne Reader. LENS Publishing Company, No. 37, (Jan./Feb. 1990): p. 117. Excerpted from Harrowsmith. (March/April 1989).

 

221. Harding, Jim. "Soft Paths for Difficult Nations". Soft Energy Notes. Vol. 3, No. 3, (June/July 1980): p. 21.

 

222. Totten, Michael, et al. The Road to Trillion Dollar Energy Savings. Public Citizen, Washington D.C. (1984): p. 51.

 

223. Ibid.

 

224. Ibid.

 

225. Young, John E. Worldwatch Paper 101 – Discarding the Throwaway Society. Worldwatch Institute, Washington D.C., (Jan. 1991): p. 23.

 

226. Ibid.

 

227. Gaines, L. L. Energy and Materials Used in the Production and Recycling of Consumer Goods Packaging. Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, (Feb. 1981): p. 5.

 

228. Pearlman, Nancy – Editor. "Use of Refillables Instead of Recycled Bottles". The Compendium Newsletter. Vol. 20, No. 4, (July/Aug. 1992): p. 10.

 

229. Brown, Lester and Edward C. Wolf. "Global Prospects". Not Man Apart. (April/March 1985): p. 15.

 

230. Horton, Paul B. et al. The Sociology of Social Problems. Eighth Edition, Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, (1985): p. 414.

 

231. Ibid.

 

232. During, Alan B. "Junk Food, Food Junk". World Watch. Vol. 4, No. 5, (Sept./Oct. 1991): p. 8.

 

233. Stauffer-Forsell, Roberta. "Energy Saving from Recycling". Resource Recycling. (Jan./Feb. 1989): pp. 24-25, 56, 58-60.

 

234. Recycling Responds – An Industry at Work for America's Future. National Association of Recycling Industries, New York, New York, (1978): p. 4.

 

235. Totten, Michael, et al. The Road to Trillion Dollar Energy Savings. Public Citizen, Washington D.C. (1984): p. 15.

 

236. Ibid.

 

237. Brown, Lester et al. "Earth Day 2030". World Watch. Vol. 3, No. 2, (March/April 1990): p. 17.

 

238. Totten, Michael, et al. The Road to Trillion Dollar Energy Savings. Public Citizen, Washington D.C. (1984): p. 15.

 

239. Author's calculations.

 

240. During, Alan B. "Junk Food, Food Junk". World Watch. Vol. 4, No. 5, (Sept./Oct. 1991): p. 7 and verified by Author's calculations based on figures taken from Gaines, L. L. Energy and Materials Used in the Production and Recycling of Consumer Goods Packaging. Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, (Feb. 1981): p. 3.

 

241. Author's calculations based on figures taken from Gaines, L. L. Energy and Materials Used in the Production and Recycling of Consumer Goods Packaging. Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, (Feb. 1981): p. 3.

 

242. Ibid.

 

243. Ibid. p. 3.

 

244. Author's calculations based on figures taken from "Recycling Saves Resources". Berkeley Ecology Center Newsletter. (April 1985): p.1.

 

245. Young, John E. "Burn Out". World Watch. World Watch Institute, Vol. 4, No. 4, (July/Aug. 1991): p. 8.

 

246. During, Alan B. "Junk Food, Food Junk". World Watch. Vol. 4, No. 5, (Sept./Oct. 1991): pp. 7-8.

 

247. Ayres, Ed. "Whitewash: Pursuing the Truth About Paper". World Watch. Vol. 5, No. 5, (Sept./Oct. 1992): p. 17.

 

248. Remba, Zev. Interviewing Robert Collins, Director of Clean Water Action's Solid Waste Program. "Recycle First: Countering the Rush to Burn". Clean Water Action News. Vol. 14, No. 1, (Winter 1989): p. 6.

 

249. Ibid.

 

250. Karasek, F.W. and L.C. Dickson. "Model Studies of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin Formation During Municipal Refuge Incineration". Science. Vol. 237, (Aug. 14, 1987): p. 754.

 

251. Remba, Zev. Interviewing Robert Collins, Director of Clean Water Action's Solid Waste Program. "Recycle First: Countering the Rush to Burn". Clean Water Action News. Vol. 14, No. 1, (Winter 1989): p. 8.

 

252. Young, John E. "Burn Out". World Watch. World Watch Inst., Vol. 4, No. 4, (July/Aug. 1991): p. 8.

 

253. Ibid.

 

254. Flavin, Christopher and John E. Young. "Will Clinton Give Industry A Green Edge". World Watch. Worldwatch Inst., Vol. 6, No. 1, (Jan./Feb. 1993): p. 30.

 

255. Ibid.

 

256. "Vital Signs". World Watch. Worldwatch Inst., Vol. 4, No. 5, (Sept./Oct. 1991): p. 6.

 

257. Meyers, Steve and Kathy Slicter. "The Reluctant Revolution". Soft Energy Notes. Rocky Mountain Inst., Vol. 3, No. 4, Old Snowmass, Colorado, (1980): pp. 3-5.

 

258. Lovins, Hunter et al. Changing America: Blueprints for a New Democracy. 2nd Edition, (Reprint), Brickhouse Publishers, New York, (1981): p. 11.

 

259. Marinelli, Janet. Garbage Magazine. Vol. 1, No. 2, (Nov./Dec. 1989): pp. 31 & 34.

 

260. Flavin, Christopher, Rick Piltz and Chris Nichols. Sustainable Energy. Renew America, Washington D.C., (1988): p. 8.

 

261. Ibid. This was also reported in Romm, Joseph J. The Once and Future Superpower. William Morrow and Company, (1992): p. 129. Also see Brown, Lester et al. "Earth Day 2030". World Watch. Vol. 3, No. 2, (March/April 1990): p. 16.

 

262. Ibid.

263. Ibid.

 

264. Ibid.

 

265. Lovins, Amory B. and  L. Hunter Lovins. Least-cost Energy. 2nd Edition, Brickhouse Publishers, New York, (1981): p. XXII.

 

266. Lovins, Amory B. and  L. Hunter Lovins. "Winning The Peace". RMI Newsletter. Vol. VII, No. 1, (Spring 1991): p.3.

 

267. Ibid.

 

268. Ibid.

 

269. Ibid.

 

270. Rosewicz, Barbara. "Japanese Firms Again Dominate Top-Mileage List". The Wall Street Journal. (Sept. 30, 1991): p. C-15.

 

271. Ibid.

 

272. "Car Talk". National Public Radio.

 

273. Lovins, Hunter et al. Changing America: Blueprints for a New Democracy. 2nd Edition, (Reprint), Brickhouse Publishers, New York, (1981): p. 11.

 

274. Romm, Joseph J. The Once and Future Superpower. William Morrow and Company, (1992): p. 127.

 

275. Ibid. pp. 127-28.

 

276. Ibid. p. 128.

 

277. Ibid.

 

278. Ibid.

 

279. Ibid.

 

280. Lowe, Marcia D. Alternatives to the Automobile: Transport for Livable Cities. Worldwatch Paper 98, World Watch Inst., Washington D.C., (Oct. 1990): p. 13.

 

281. Morris, David. "Getting From Here To There: Building a Rational Transportation System". Paving Moratorium Update. Alliance for a Paving Moratorium, Issue No. 2, (Fall/Winter 1991-1992): p. 6.

 

282. Bayless, Lynne. "Car Wars". Earthword. No. 4, Eos Inst., Laguna Beach, Cal., (1992): 3.

 

283. Aryes, Ed. "Breaking Away". World Watch. Vol. 6, No. 1, (Jan./Feb. 1993): p. 13.

 

284. Ibid.

 

285. Ibid.

 

286. Ibid.

 

287. Ibid.

 

288. Lundberg, Jan, Editor. "Get Roads Off Welfare: High Property Taxes Pay for Roads". Paving Moratorium Update and Auto Free Times. Issue No. 5, (Summer 1993): p. 25.

 

289. Ibid.

 

290. Author's calculations.

 

291. Lovins, Amory B. and  L. Hunter Lovins. Least-cost Energy. 2nd Edition, Brickhouse Publishers, New York, (1981): p. 49. Also see Lovins, Hunter et al. Changing America: Blueprints for a New Democracy. 2nd Edition, (Reprint), Brickhouse Publishers, New York, (1981): p. 11, and Totten, Michael, et al. The Road to Trillion Dollar Energy Savings. Public Citizen, Washington D.C. (1984): p. 50.

 

292. Lovins, Amory B. and  L. Hunter Lovins. "Winning The Peace". RMI Newsletter. Vol. VII, No. 1, (Spring 1991): p.3.

 

293. Drucker, Charles. "Transportation 2000: The Policy Role". Soft Energy Notes. Vol. 4, No. 3, (1981): p. 77.

 

294. Drucker, Charles. "Transportation and Energy". Soft Energy Notes. Vol. 4, No. 2, (1981): p. 34.

 

295. Pearlman, Nancy – Editor. "United States Transportation Mismanagement". The Compendium Newsletter. Vol. 20, No. 4, (July/Aug. 1992): p. 9.

 

296. Dunne, Jim. "Truckin Into The Future". Popular Mechanics. (June 1986): pp. 65-8.

 

297. Krause, Florentine. "Fruehauf Finds 40% Fuel Savings". Soft Energy Notes. Vol. 5, No. 2, (1982): p. 43.

 

298. Swan, Christopher. "Back On The Track-Revitalizing The Railroads". Soft Energy Notes. Vol. 4, No. 22, (1981): p. 37.

 

299. Drucker, Charles. "Transportation and Energy". Soft Energy Notes. Vol. 4, No. 2, (1981): p. 34.

 

300. Ibid. Author's calculation.

 

301. Author's calculations based on Krause, Florentine. "Fruehauf Finds 40% Fuel Savings". Soft Energy Notes. Vol. 5, No. 2, (1982): p. 43.

 

302. Lovins, Amory B. and  L. Hunter Lovins. Least-cost Energy. 2nd Edition, Brickhouse Publishers, New York, (1981): pp. 48-49.

 

303. Ayres, Ed. "Breaking Away". World Watch. Vol. 6, No. 1, (Jan./Feb. 1993): p. 11.

 

304. Brown, Lester et al. "Earthday 2030". World Watch. Vol. 3, No. 2, (March/April 1990): p. 17.

 

305. Ayres, Ed. "Breaking Away". World Watch. Vol. 6, No. 1, (Jan./Feb. 1993): p. 14.

 

306. Hagerman, Eric. "Small Town Thinking". World Watch. Vol. 4, No. 4, (July/Aug. 1991): p. 7.

 

307. Ibid.

 

308. Author's calculations – 50% is probably conservative considering that so much of auto travel is related to getting to and from work, school and shopping. In a balanced community served by mass transit, 90 to 100 percent of these travel needs could be met without the use of an automobile.

 

309. Meyers, Steve. "Microprocessors Vs Oil". Soft Energy Notes. Vol. 3, No. 4, (1980): p. 17.

 

310. Pearlman, Nancy. "Telecommuting As A Transportation Alternative". The Compendium Newsletter. Vol. 20, No. 5, (Sept/Oct.): p. 10.

 

311. Ibid.

 

312. Ibid.

 

313.  Ayres, Ed. Editor. "Vital Signs". World Watch. Vol. 6, No. 6, (Nov./Dec. 1993): p. 37.

 

314. Lowe, Marcia D. "City Limits". World Watch. Vol. 5, No. 1, (Feb. 1992): p. 20.

 

315. Ibid. p. 21.

 

316. Krause, Florentine. "Carbon Dioxide: Fate or Folly". Not Man Apart. (Dec. 1983): p. 14.

 

317. Lovins, Amory B. and  L. Hunter Lovins. "Winning The Peace". RMI Newsletter. Vol. VII, No. 1, (Spring 1991): p.3.

 

318. Krause, Florentine. "Carbon Dioxide: Fate or Folly". Not Man Apart. (Dec. 1983): p. 14.

 

319. Lovins, Amory B. and  L. Hunter Lovins. Least-cost Energy. 2nd Edition, Brickhouse Publishers, New York, (1981): p. 68.

 

320. Author's calculations.

 

321. Harding, Jim. "Soft Paths for Difficult Nations". Soft Energy Notes. Vol. 3, No. 3, (June/July 1980): P. 21.

 

322. Ibid.

 

323. Hayes, Dennis. "A Wake-up Call". Solar Today. Vol. 6, No. 6, (Nov./Dec ): p. 38.

 

324. Author's calculations.

 

325. Author's calculations. A .5 percent increase in population per year would increase Japan's population by 17 percent in 33 years. Even if national energy consumption remained the same, a 17 percent population increase would reduce the per capita energy use in Japan to 83 percent of what in 1980 or only 33 percent of the per capita energy consumption in the U.S. for the same year. A 38 percent reduction in Japan's energy use on top of this would reduce Japan's per capita energy use to around 21 percent of the per capita energy use in the U.S. in 1980.

 

326. Author's calculations.

 

327. Lovins, Amory B. and  L. Hunter Lovins. Least-cost Energy. 2nd Edition, Brickhouse Publishers, New York, (1981): pp. XXVII-XXVIII.

 

328. Author's calculations.

 

329. Lovins, Amory B. and  L. Hunter Lovins. Least-cost Energy. 2nd Edition, Brickhouse Publishers, New York, (1981): p. 119. Also see section on the true-cost of energy.

 

Chapter VIII

 

330. Rowe, William D. "Renewable Energy: Target for 2050". IEEE Spectrum. (Feb. 1982): p. 58.

 

331. Lovins, Amory B. and  L. Hunter Lovins. Least-cost Energy. 2nd Edition, Brickhouse Publishers, New York, (1981): pp. XXXIII, 126. Also see Totten, Michael, et al. The Road to Trillion Dollar Energy Savings. Public Citizen, Washington D.C. (1984): pp. 42-43.

 

332. Hayes, Dennis. "A Wake-up Call". Solar Today. Vol. 6, No. 6, (Nov./Dec ): p. 38. 26 terawatts is Hayes' figure. Author's statement – 26 terawatts is 3 times what we inefficiently consume today (1995) and what we would need in 2030 with cost-effective efficiency improvements. This statement is based on figures developed by Amory and Hunter Lovins in their book, Least Cost Energy.

 

333. Brower, Michael. Cool Energy. A Report by the Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, Mass. (1990): p. 18.

 

334. Ibid.

 

335. Ibid. p. 19.

 

336. A quad of energy equals a quadrillion (1x 10 to the 15th power or 1 followed by 15 zeros) Btu. A Btu is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of a pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit.

 

337. Based on data extracted from National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL. Interim Solar Radiation Data Manual. NREL, Golden Colorado, (Nov. 1992): pp. 10-72.

 

338. Author's calculations based on figures taken from: The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1993. World Almanac, Scripps Howard Company, St. Martin's Press, New York, (1992): p. 456.

 

339. Ibid.

 

340.  Author's calculations based on figures taken from: Brower, Michael. Cool Energy. A Report by the Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, Mass. (1990): p. 19, and from The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1993. World Almanac, Scripps Howard Company, St. Martin's Press, New York, (1992): p. 456.

 

341. Hubbard, Harold R. "The Real Cost of Energy", Scientific American. Vol. 264, No. 4, (April 1991): p. 40.

 

342. Gever, John et al. Beyond Oil. A Project of Carrying Capacity Inc., Ballinger Publishing Company, Cambridge Mass., (1986): p. 20.

 

343. Author's calculations.

 

344. Busch, Lawrence and William b. Lacy Editors. Food Security in the United States. Westview Press, Boulder Colorado – London. (1984): p. 107.

 

345. Meyers, Steve. "Efficient Electric Motors: Winding Up and Slowing Down". Soft Energy Notes. Vol. 3, No. 2, (April 1980): p. 28.

 

346. Telephone conversation with Mark Delucchi at the University of Cal. At Davis Institute of Transportation Studies.

 

347. Author's calculations.

 

348. Author's calculations based on a projected U.S. fleet of vehicles equal to the number of cars on the road in 1995, driving the same number of miles but with cars that are 4 times more efficient, on average, than 1995 cars and still fueled by gasoline powered internal combustion engines. If a fleet of cars built to the same specifications were powered by batteries or a flywheel storage system, the same number of  units of energy in the form of electricity, would allow the fleet to go 3 times as far as the same fleet powered by internal combustion engines burning gasoline.

 

349. The average solar insolation in the southwest desert states is around 7 kWh of solar energy in the form of light, per square meter per day. In the best areas of Florida the per square meter average is just under 5 kWh. Taken from the National Renewable Laboratory (NERL), Interim Solar Radiation Data Manual. NREL, Midwest Research Institute – Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy, (Nov. 1992): pp. 13-72.

 

350. Brower, Michael. Cool Energy. A Report by the Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, Mass. (1990): p. 46.

 

351. Swisher, Randy et al. "Wind Energy – A Resource for the 1990s and Beyond". American Wind Energy Association. (Feb. 15, 1991): p. 46.

 

352. Swisher, Randall and Paul Gipe. "U.S. wind Farms: An Expanding Market". Solar Today. Vol. 6, No. 6, (Nov./Dec. 1992): p. 17.

 

353. Ibid.

 

354. Lovins, Amory B. and  L. Hunter Lovins. Least-cost Energy. 2nd Edition, Brickhouse Publishers, New York, (1981): p. 112.

 

355. Brower, Michael. Cool Energy. A Report by the Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, Mass. (1990): p. 57.

 

356. Zerbe, John I. "Biofuels: Production and Potential". Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy. (Winter 1988): p. 38.

 

357. Alich, John A. Jr. and Robert E. Inman. Effective Utilization of Solar Energy To Produce Clean Fuel. Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Cal. 94025, (1974): pp. 34-35.

 

358. Author's calculations based on figures taken from . Alich, John A. Jr. and Robert E. Inman. Effective Utilization of Solar Energy To Produce Clean Fuel. Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Cal. 94025, (1974): pp. 34-35.

 

359. Ibid. pp. 34 & 98.

 

360. Telephone conversation with Walter Graves, Farm Advisor with the University of California Agricultural Extension Service, San Diego, Cal.

 

361. LaRue, Steve. "Scientist Says Chaparral is Energy Source". San Diego Union. (Nov. 14 1982): p. B-1.

 

362. Author's calculations.

 

363. Brower, Michael. Cool Energy. A Report by the Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, Mass. (1990): pp. 19 & 68.

 

364. Ibid. pp. 19, 46 & 55. Based on existing hydro power (3.1 quads), low end wind power potential (3.4 quads), and the average of the estimates for biomass potential using the low numbers from the estimates given on page 55 where estimates are given as a  range (9.6 quads).

 

365. Brower, Michael. Cool Energy. A Report by the Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, Mass. (1990): p. 46 for wind energy, p. 55 for biomass, and pp. 19 & 68 for hydropower.

 

366. Author's calculations.

 

367. Author's calculations.

 

368. Author's calculations.

 

369. Flavin, Christopher. "Selling Solar Cells". World Watch. Vol. 1, No. 5, (Sept./Oct. 1988): p. 42.

 

370. Ibid.

 

371. Lovins, Amory B. and  L. Hunter Lovins. "Winning The Peace". RMI Newsletter. Vol. VII, No. 1, (Spring 1991): p.7.

 

372. Ibid.

 

373. Parrish, Michael. "Solar Power Cells May Cut Bill by One Third". Los Angeles Times. Times Mirror, (April 3, 1991): p. A-1.

 

374. Wilcox, Howard. Ocean Food and Energy Farm Project. Integrated Science Corporation, 1532 Third St., Suite 201, Santa Monica, Cal., (March 1, 1980): pp. 4-21.

 

375. Bird, Carolyn J. and Mark A. Ragan Editors. Eleventh International Seaweed Symposium. Paper by C.K. Tseng. "Phycological Research in the Development of the Chinese Seaweed Industry". Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, Lancaster, (1984): p. 9.

 

376. Telephone conversation with Bill Wilson, an Environmental Planning and Engineering consultant based in Maui, Hawaii.

 

377. Brower, Michael. Cool Energy. A Report by the Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, Mass. (1990): p. 51.

 

378. Ibid.

 

379. Mahjouri, Fariborz. "DMS With Solar Hot Water at Baltimore Gas & Electric". Solar Today. Vol. 8, No. 1, (Jan./Feb. 1994): p. 23.

 

380. Vant-hull, Lorin L. "Solar Thermal Central Receivers". Solar Today. Vol. 6, No. 6, (Nov./Dec. 1992): p. 13.

 

381. Ibid. p. 15.

 

382. Brower, Michael. Cool Energy. A Report by the Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, Mass. (1990): p. 68.

 

383. Author's calculations based on data published in: Dart, Guy. "Alternative Fuels". The Energy Report. (Nov. 15, 1993): p. 678.

 

384. Dart, Guy. "Alternative Fuels". The Energy Report. (Nov. 15, 1993): p. 678.

 

385. Stobaugh, Robert and Daniel Yergin. Energy Future. Random House, New York, New York, (1979): p. 226.

 

386. Hubbard, Harold R. "The Real Cost of Energy", Scientific American. Vol. 264, No. 4, (April 1991): p. 37.

 

387. Vant-hull, Lorin L. "Solar Thermal Central Receivers". Solar Today. Vol. 6, No. 6, (Nov./Dec. 1992): p. 16.

 

388. Ibid.

 

Chapter IX

 

389. Gever, John et al. Beyond Oil. A Project of Carrying Capacity Inc., Ballinger Publishing Company, Cambridge Mass., (1986): p. 168.

 

390. La Ganga, Maria L. "Maverick Farmer's Drought Solution". Los Angeles Times. (June 2, 1992): pp. D-1, 7. Also see "The West's Water Future: A Continuing Sunset SPECIAL REPORT", Sunset Magazine. (March 1987): p. 93 and (September 1987): p.157.

 

391. Author's calculation.

 

392. Adler, Jerry and William J. Cook et al. "The Browning of America". Newsweek. Vol. XCVII, No. 8, (Feb. 23, 1981): p. 27.

 

393. Postel, Sandra. "Trouble On Tap". World Watch. Worldwatch Inst., Vol. 2, No. 5, (Sept./Oct. 1989): p. 19.

 

394. Ibid. pp. 19-20.

 

395. Ibid. p. 20.

 

396. Peterson, Cass. "Cut Rate Water, Surplus Crops". Washington Post. (Aug. 8, 1988): p. A-17.

 

397. Postel, Sandra. World Watch Paper 93. Worldwatch Inst., Washington D.C. (Dec. 1989): p. 6.

 

398. Wiles, Richard, Project Director, Committee on the Role of Alternative Farming Methods in Modern Production Agriculture. Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington D.C. (1989): p. 50.

 

399. Brown, Lester R. "The Growing Grain Gap". World Watch. Vol. 1, No. 5, (Sept./Oct. 1988): p. 14.

 

400. Ibid.

 

401. Postel, Sandra. World Watch Paper 93. Worldwatch Inst., Washington D.C. (Dec. 1989): p. 6. Also see Postel, Sandra. World Watch Paper 62. Worldwatch Institute, Washington D.C., (Dec. 1984): p. 39.

 

402. Postel, Sandra. World Watch Paper 62. Worldwatch Institute, Washington D.C., (Dec. 1984): p. 39.

 

403. Postel, Sandra. World Watch Paper 93. Worldwatch Inst., Washington D.C. (Dec. 1989): p. 38.

404. Ibid.

 

405. Ibid.

 

406. Postel, Sandra. World Watch Paper 62. Worldwatch Institute, Washington D.C., (Dec. 1984): pp. 39-40.

 

407. Ibid.

 

408. The Hydrovisor is a tensiometer devise that which performs this function. It is available through Water Conservation Systems Inc., 141 So. Spring St., Claremont CA 91711, (714) 621-5806.

 

409. Postel, Sandra. World Watch Paper 62. Worldwatch Institute, Washington D.C., (Dec. 1984): p. 41.

 

410. Ibid. p. 20.

 

411. Ibid. pp. 40-41. Additionally, there are publications available on CIMIC from the State of Cal. Dept. of Water Resources, Office of Water Conservation, 1416 Ninth St., P.O. Box  942836, Sacramento CA 94326-0001, (916) 653-5791.

 

412. Arthur, Tom. "Computer Helps Reduce Irrigation Costs". American Vegetable Grower. Vol. 38, (Feb. 1990): pp. 14, 17. 

 

413. Akst, Daniel. "New Crops May Hold Promise on Drought". Los Angeles Times: Business Section. (1993): p. D-1. check date.

 

414. Ibid.

 

415. Ibid.

 

416. Ibid.

 

417. Rogers, Peter. "Water: Not as Cheap as You Think". Technology Review. (Nov./Dec. 1986): p. 33.

 

418. Reisner, Marc. "The Next Water War: Cities Versus Agriculture". Issues in Science and Technology. (Winter 1988-89): p.99.

 

419. Ibid. pp. 98 & 99.

 

420. Ibid. p. 99.

 

421. Ibid. p. 100. Growing grapes in California is a $1.5 billion industry yet it uses only a little over half the land area that is now used to grow pasture.

422. Dennis, Harry. Water and Power. Friends of the Earth, San Francisco CA, (1981): pp. 11-12.

 

423. Ibid. - plus Author's calculations 

 

424. Ibid. pp. 101-103.

 

425. Robbins, John. Diet For a New America. Stillpoint Publishing, Walpole, New Hampshire, (1987): p. 367.

 

426. Author's calculations. Also see Lazear, Edward P. "Water for the People". Los Angeles Times. (Feb. 5, 1991): p. B-7.

 

427. Robbins, John. Diet For a New America. Stillpoint Publishing, Walpole, New Hampshire, (1987): p. 367.

 

428. Ibid.

 

429. Marken, Williams Editor. "Water Efficiency in the Home". Sunset Magazine. (Sept. 1987): p. 158.

 

430. Ibid. p. 156.

 

431. Consumer Report Staff. "How To Save Water". Consumer Reports. Vol. 55, No. 7, (July 1990): p. 465.

 

432. Author's calculations.

 

433. Consumer Report Staff. "How To Save Water". Consumer Reports. Vol. 55, No. 7, (July 1990): p. 465.

 

434. Postel, Sandra. World Watch Institute Paper 62. Worldwatch Inst., Washington D.C., (1984): p. 45.

 

435. Author's calculations.

 

436. Kourik, Robert. "Toilets: Low Flush/No Flush". Garbage Magazine. Vol. II, No. 1, (Jan./Feb. 1990): p. 22.

 

437. Ibid.

 

438. Ibid. p. 3.

 

439. Marken, William Editor. "Collecting and Reusing Gray Water". Sunset Magazine. (May 1981): p. 116.

 

440. Ibid.

 

441. Kourik, Robert. Graywater Use In The Landscape. Metamorphic Press, Santa Rosa, Cal. (1991): p. 7.

 

442. Stopka, Karel. "Meeting Federal Drinking Water Standards with Ozone". Pollution Engineering. (Sept. 1990): p. 101.

 

443. Ibid.

 

444. Harper, David. Eutrophication of Freshwaters, Principles, Problems and Restoration. Chapman and Hall, New York, New York, (1992): p. 139.

 

445. Clark, Mary E. Contemporary Biology. Second Edition, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, London, Toronto, (1979): pp. 180-181.

 

446. Lefferts, Lisa Y. "Something Fishy: How Safe is Your Seafood". New Age Journal. Vol. 6, No. 4, (July/Aug. 1989): p. 113.

 

447. Hammer, Donald A. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, Michigan, (1989): p. 116.

 

448. Todd, John. "Adventures of an Applied Ecologist". Whole Earth. No. 62, (Spring 1989): pp. 36-39.

 

449. The author was the Co-project Director of this project during its design and construction. Also see Protillo Jr., Ernesto. "Thousands of Trees Envisioned". San Diego Union. (March 25, 1991): pp. B-3 & B-5 and LaRue, Steve. "Low Tech Facility in Tijuana Hailed as One Sewage Solution". San Diego Union/Tribune. (Oct. 20, 1993).

 

450. California Dept. of Water Resources. Water Conservation in California. Bulletin 198-84, State of California, Sacramento CA, (July 1984): p. 11.

 

451. The Editors of Sunset Books and Sunset Magazine. Sunset New Western Garden Book. Lane Publishing Company, Menlo Park, CA, (1981): See Appropriate Climate Zones.

 

452. Ibid.

 

453. Ibid.

 

454. Author's calculations.

 

455. Brown, Lester R. State of The World. Worldwatch Inst., Washington D.C., W.W. Norton and Company, New York, London, (1986): p. 49.

 

456. Postel, Sandra. World Watch Paper 67. Worldwatch Inst., Washington D.C., (1985): pp. 29-30.

 

457. Ibid. p. 29.

 

458. NOVA Broadcast. "Are You Swimming In A Sewer". Transcript of the broadcast, WCBH Educational Foundation, Boston Mass., (1986): pp. 16-17.

 

459. Cummings, Gil. "A Clear Look At Water Conditioning". Restaurant Business. (April 10, 1985): p. 232.

 

460. "IBM Engineer Shuns Chemicals in Favor of Electrostatic Devise for Water Treatment". Air Conditioning & Refrigeration News. (April 27, 1987): p. 6.

 

461. Ibid.

 

462. Callahan, Robert Z. California Shrublands. Report No. 5, Wildlands Resources Center, Division of Agricultural and Natural Resources, University of Cal., Berkeley, CA, (Feb. 1985): p. 4. Also see Postel, Sandra. "A Green Fix To The Global Warm-Up". World Watch. Vol. 1, No. 5, (Sept./Oct. 1988): pp. 33-34.

 

463. Horton, Paul B. The Sociology of Social Problems. Eights Edition, Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, (1985): p. 420.

 

464. Linden, Eugene. "The Death of Birth". Time Magazine. Vol. 133, No. 1, (Jan. 2, 1989): p. 32.

 

465. Ibid.

 

466. Ibid.

 

467. Ibid.

 

468. Easterbrook, Gregg. "Everything You Know About The Environment Is Wrong". The New Republic. Vol. 202, No. 18, (April 30, 1990): p. 25.

 

469. Linden, Eugene. "The Death of Birth". Time Magazine. Vol. 133, No. 1, (Jan. 2, 1989): p. 32.

 

470. Horton, Paul B. The Sociology of Social Problems. Eights Edition, Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, (1985): p. 422.

 

471. Ibid. p. 416.

 

472. Ibid.

 

473. Ibid.

 

474. Ibid. pp. 422-23.

 

475. Postel, Sandra. "A Green Fix To The Global Warm-Up". World Watch. Vol. 1, No. 5, (Sept./Oct. 1988): p. 35.

 

476. Committee On The Role of Alternative Methods in Modern Agriculture. Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., (1989): p. 119.

 

477. Ibid.

 

478. Pimentel, David. Food and Natural Resources. Academic Press Inc., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, San Diego, CA, (1989): p. 305.

 

479. Ferber, Arthur E. Windbreaks for Conservation. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Agricultural Information Bulletin 339, Washington D.C,, (Oct. 1969): p. 2.

 

480. Ibid. 3.

 

481. Ibid. p. 2.

 

482. Postel, Sandra. "A Green Fix To The Global Warm-Up". World Watch. Vol. 1, No. 5, (Sept./Oct. 1988): p. 36.

 

483. Grossman, Joel. "Entomological Society of America's Annual Meeting IPM Highlights – Part Eight". The IPM Practitioner. Vol. XI, No. 11/12, (Nov./Dec. 1989): p. 9.

 

484. Wuerthner, George, "The Real Cost of a Hamburger". Earthwatch. Vol. 12, No. 5, (July/Aug. 1993): p. 25.

 

485. Committee On The Role of Alternative Methods in Modern Agriculture. Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., (1989): p. 119.

 

486. Jacobs, Lynn. Waste of the West: Public Lands Ranching. Arizona Lithographers, Tucson, Arizona, (1991): p. 80.

 

487. Horton, Paul B. The Sociology of Social Problems. Eights Edition, Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, (1985): p. 421.

 

488. Samson, R. Soil Erosion, Farmland or Wasteland – A Time to Choose. Rodale Press, (1981): p. 118.

 

489. Wuerthner, George, "The Real Cost of a Hamburger". Earthwatch. Vol. 12, No. 5, (July/Aug. 1993): p. 25.

 

490. World Resources 1992 – 93. The World Resources Institute, The U.N. Environmental Programme, and The U.N. Devlopment Program, Oxford Press, New York, (1992): pp. 114-115.

 

491. Jacobs, Lynn. Waste of the West: Public Lands Ranching. Arizona Lithographers, Tucson, Arizona, (1991): p. 566.

 

492. Wilson, Alex. "The Northwestern Timber Debate". Environmental Building News. Vol. 2, No. 3, (May/June 1993): p. 16.

 

493. School of Forestry and School of Engineering, Oregon State University. Studies on the Effects of Watershed Practices on Streams. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. (1971): pp. 41-45.

 

494. Ibid.

 

495. Wilson, Alex. "The Northwestern Timber Debate". Environmental Building News. Vol. 2, No. 3, (May/June 1993): p. 14.

 

496. Perry, David A. "An Overview of Sustainable Forestry". Journal of Pesticide Reform. Vol. 8, No. 3, (May/June 1993): pp. 9-10.

 

497. Wilson, Alex. "The Northwestern Timber Debate". Environmental Building News. Vol. 2, No. 3, (May/June 1993): p. 17.

 

498. Ryan, John C. "Oregon's Ancient Laboratory". World Watch. Vol. 3, No. 6, (Nov./Dec. 1990): p. 7.

 

499. Ibid. p. 8.

 

500. Wilson, Alex. "The Northwestern Timber Debate". Environmental Building News. Vol. 2, No. 3, (May/June 1993): p. 15.

 

501. Ibid.

 

502. Ibid.

 

503. School of Forestry and School of Engineering, Oregon State University. Studies on the Effects of Watershed Practices on Streams. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. (1971): pp. 6-7.

 

504. Horton, Paul B. The Sociology of Social Problems. Eights Edition, Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, (1985): p. 420.

505. Bormann, Herbert F. and Gene E. Likens. "The Nutrient Cycles of an Ecosystem". Scientific American. Vol. 223, No. 4, (Oct. 1970): p. 95.

 

506. Ibid.

 

507. Ibid. p. 97.

 

508. Ibid.

 

509. Ibid.

 

510. Ibid. p. 100.

 

511. Ibid. p. 101.

 

512. Kenworthy, Tom. "One Tranquil Story of Timber Cutting". The Washington Post. (Wed., Oct. 14, 1992): p. A-3.

 

513. Ibid.

 

514. Zuckerman, Seth. "Old Forestry". Sierra. Vol. 77, No. 2, (March/April 1992): p. 44.

 

515. Kenworthy, Tom. "One Tranquil Story of Timber Cutting". The Washington Post. (Wed., Oct. 14, 1992): p. A-3.

 

516. Zuckerman, Seth. "Old Forestry". Sierra. Vol. 77, No. 2, (March/April 1992): p. 44.

 

517. Kenworthy, Tom. "One Tranquil Story of Timber Cutting". The Washington Post. (Wed., Oct. 14, 1992): p. A-3.

 

518. Ibid.

 

519. Ibid.

 

520. Ibid.

 

521. Scientific Certification Systems. 1611 Telegraph Ave., Suite 1111, Oakland, Cal., 94612-2113, (510) 832-0359.

 

522. World Watch Staff. "Rain Forest Drugs Cure Deforestation". Earth Watch. Vol. XII, No. II, (Jan/Feb 1993): p. 6.

 

523. Christensen, Jon. "Letting The Amazon Pay Its Own Way". Whole Earth. No. 66, (Spring 1990): p. 96.

 

524. Ibid.

525. "The Disapearing Forests". U.N. Environmental Programme – Environment Brief No. 3. Nairobi, Kenya, Second Edition, (1991): p. 3.

 

526. World Resources 1992 – 93. The World Resources Inst., The U.N. Environmental Programme and The U.N. Development Programme. Oxford Press, New York, (1992): p. 118. Also see Monastersky, Richard. "The Fall of the Forest". Science News. A Science Service Publication, Washington D.C., Vol. 20, No. 4, (July 21, 1990): pp. 40-41.

 

527. Pearlman, Nancy – Editor. "Costa Rica". The Compendium Newsletter. Vol. 20, No. 4, (July/Aug.1992): p. 12.

 

528. Ibid.

 

529. Ibid.

 

530. Linden, Eugene. "The Death of Birth". Time Magazine. Vol. 133, No. 1, (Jan. 2, 1989): p. 32.

 

531. Ibid. p. 33.

 

532. "Carrying Capacity Checkup and Connections". Carrying Capacity Network Clearinghouse Bulletin. Vol. 3, No. 2, (March 1993): p. 5.

 

533. Ibid.

 

534. Author's personal experience.

 

535. Conservation with biologist Steve Neudecker, Executive Director of the Chula Vista Cal. Nature Center and Bay Front Conservancy Trust. Also see Harper, David. Eutrophication of Freshwater, Principles, Problems and Restoration. Chapman and Hall, New York, New York, (1992): p. 139.

 

536. Clark, Mary. Contemporary Biology. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, (1979): p. 35.

 

537. Lecard, Mark. "Road Worrier". Sierra. Vol. 77, No. 6, (Nov./Dec. 1992): p. 20.

 

538. Ibid.

 

539. Miller, Fred. "Exposure". The Monthly Journal of the Waste and Toxic Substances Project. Environmental Action Foundation, Washington D.C., (July/Aug. 1983): p. 3. Also see Science News. (2/ 18/ 1989): p. 104 and (8/5/1989): p. 94.

 

540. Ayres, Ed. "Whitewash: Pursuing the Truth About Paper". World Watch. Vol. 5, No. 5, (Sept./Oct. 1992): p. 24.

 

541. Ibid.

 

542. Ryan, John. "Sweden Says No To Polluting Paper". World Watch. Vol. 3, No. 2, (March/April 1990): p. 39.

 

543. Abramson, Rudy. "Study Discovers Nitrate in Half of Nation's Wells". Los Angeles Times. (Nov. 14, 1990): p. A-18.

 

544. Ibid.

 

545. "Be Eco-logical". Ecological Buying Guide. Environmental Health Coalition, San Diego, CA, (619) 235- 0281, (1991): p. 1.

 

546. Wood, Marcia. "Microbe Blows Those Hornworms Away". Agricultural Research. Vol. 4, No. 6, (June 1992): p. 4. For more in-depth information on the biological control of pests see Biocide Use in Agriculture. p. 179 in this book.

 

547. "Be Eco-logical". Ecological Buying Guide. Environmental Health Coalition, San Diego, CA, (619) 235- 0281, (1991): p. 1.

 

548. Ibid.

 

549. Ibid.

 

550. Ibid.

 

551. Author's personal experience.

 

552. Committee on the Role of Alternative Farming Methods in Modern Production Agriculture. Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., (1989): p. 3.

 

553. Easterbrook, Gregg. "Cleaning Up". Newsweek. Vol. CXIV, No. 4, (July 24, 1989): p. 36. Also see Easterbrook, Gregg. "Everything You Know About The Environment Is Wrong". The New Republic. Vol. 202, No. 18, (April 30, 1990): p. 26.

 

554. Committee on the Role of Alternative Farming Methods in Modern Production Agriculture. Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., (1989): p. 3.

 

555. Mott, Laurie and Karen Snyder. "Pesticide Alert". The Amicus Journal. (Spring 1988): p. 22.

 

556. Ibid. pp. 22-23.

 

557. Committee on the Role of Alternative Farming Methods in Modern Production Agriculture. Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., (1989): pp. 258-259.

 

558. Horton, Paul B. The Sociology of Social Problems. Eights Edition, Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, (1985): p. 414.

 

559. Ibid.

 

560. Ibid. Also see Easterbrook, Gregg. "Everything You Know About The Environment Is Wrong". The New Republic. Vol. 202, No. 18, (April 30, 1990): p. 25.

 

561. Sarokin, David J. et al. "Cutting Chemical Wastes". An INFORM Report. INFORM Inc., (1985): p. 1.

 

562. Langon, John. "A Stinking Mess". Time. Vol. 133, No. 1, (Jan. 2, 1989): p. 47.

 

563. Sarokin, David J. et al. "Cutting Chemical Wastes". An INFORM Report. INFORM Inc., (1985): p. 3.

 

564. Arrandale, Tom. "Land Use and The Invisible Cesspool". Governing. (May 1993): p. 62.

 

565. Sarokin, David J. et al. "Cutting Chemical Wastes". An INFORM Report. INFORM Inc., (1985): p. 3.

 

566. Ibid.

 

567. Hanson, David. "Hazardous Waste Management: Planning To Avoid Future Problems". Chemical and Engineering News. Vol. 67, No. 31, (July 31, 1989): p. 9.

 

568. Sarokin, David J. et al. "Cutting Chemical Wastes". An INFORM Report. INFORM Inc., (1985): p. 14.

 

569. Easterbrook, Gregg. "Cleaning Up". Newsweek. Vol. CXIV, No. 4, (July 24, 1989): p. 28.

 

570. Ibid. p. 16.

 

571. Ibid.

 

572. Hanson, David. "Hazardous Waste Management: Planning To Avoid Future Problems". Chemical and Engineering News. Vol. 67, No. 31, (July 31, 1989): p. 11.

 

573. Hocker, Philip and Stewart Udal. "Whats Mined Is Theirs". Sierra. Vol. 74, No. 5, (Sept./Oct. 1989): p. 20.

574. Hanson, David. "Hazardous Waste Management: Planning To Avoid Future Problems". Chemical and Engineering News. Vol. 67, No. 31, (July 31, 1989): p. 11.

 

575. Lefferts, Lisa Y. "Something Fishy". New Age Journal. Vol. 6, No. 4, (July/Aug. 1989): p. 30.

 

576. Ibid.

 

577. Ibid.

 

578. Ibid. p. 113.

 

579. Cox, Caroline. "Chlordane's Slow Death: Why Does It Take So Long?". The Journal of Pesticide Reform. Vol. 7, No. 3, (Fall 1987): p. 26.

 

580. Savage, David G. "Fish Taken Near 20 Paper Mills Tied to Cancer Risk". Los Angeles Times – San Diego Edition. (Sept. 25, 1990): p. A-3.

 

581. Ibid.

 

582. Lappen, Alyssa A. "On The Waterfront". Forbes. Vol. 137, No, 8, (April 21, 1986): p. 124.

 

583. Ibid.

 

584. Ibid.

 

585. Horton, Paul B. The Sociology of Social Problems. Eights Edition, Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, (1985): p. 412.

 

586. Castleman, Michael. "Telltale Tissue". Sierra. Vol. 77, No. 6, (Nov./Dec. 1992): p. 24. Also see the discussion of increased incidences of Leukemia in children related to house and garden use of pesticides in the true-cost-pricing section of chapter III.

 

587. Ibid.

 

588. Ibid.

 

589. Wolverton, B. C. and Rebecca C. MacDonald. "Bioaccumulation and Detection of Trace Levels of Cadmium in Aquatic Systems by Eichhornia  Crassipes". Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 27, (1978): p. 161.

 

590. Lefferts, Lisa Y. "Something Fishy". New Age Journal. Vol. 6, No. 4, (July/Aug. 1989): p. 113.

 

591. Ranber, Paul. "Mercury Madness". Sierra. Vol. 77, No. 6, (Nov./Dec. 1992): p. 38.

592. Ibid.

 

593. Easterbrook, Gregg. "Everything You Know About The Environment Is Wrong". The New Republic. Vol. 202, No. 18, (April 30, 1990): p. 27.

 

594. Rice, Faye. "Next steps For The Environment". Fortune. (Oct. 19, 1992): p. 99.

 

595. Barton, Gary F. "Monsanto Reduces Emissions, Achieves 90 Percent Air Goal". News Release. Public Relations Dept., Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO, (July 19, 1993): p. 1.

 

596. Easterbrook, Gregg. "Everything You Know About The Environment Is Wrong". The New Republic. Vol. 202, No. 18, (April 30, 1990): p. 27.

 

597. Oldenburg, Kristen U. and Joel S. Hirschorn. "Waste Reduction". Environment. Vol. 29, No. 2, (March 1987): p. 43. Also see Huising, Donald et al. – Editors. Making Pollution Prevention Pay. Pergamon Press, New York, New York, (1992): p. 12 and Royston, Michael G. "Thinking Ahead: Making Pollution Prevention Pay". Harvard Business Review. (Nov./Dec.1980).

 

598. Romm, Joseph J. The Once and Future Superpower. William Morrow and Company, (1992): p. 171.

 

599. Oldenburg, Kristen U. and Joel S. Hirschorn. "Waste Reduction". Environment. Vol. 29, No. 2, (March 1987): p. 16.

 

600. Ibid.

 

601. Ibid.

 

602. Easterbrook, Gregg. "Cleaning Up". Newsweek. Vol. CXIV, No. 4, (July 24, 1989): p. 33.

 

603. Belliveau, Michael. "Pollution Prevention – An Idea Whose Time Has Come". CBE Environmental Review. (Summer 1987): p. 6.

 

604. Hirschorn, Joel S. and Kristen U. Olderburg. "From Facility Citing To Waste Reduction". Forum For Applied Research And Public Policy. Vol. 2, No. 3, (Fall 1987): p. 98.

 

605. Ibid. p. 7.

 

606. Flavin, Christopher and John E. Young. "Will Clinton Give Industry A Green Edge?". World Watch. Vol. 6, No. 1, (Jan./Feb. 1993): pp. 27-28. Also see Romm, Joseph J. The Once and Future Superpower. William Morrow and Company, (1992): p. 172.

607. Romm, Joseph J. The Once and Future Superpower. William Morrow and Company, (1992): p. 173.

 

608. Pearlman, Nancy – Editor. "Air Pollution and Trees". The Compendium Newsletter. Vol. 17, No. 2, (March/April 1989): p. 9.

 

609. Sarokin, David J. et al. "Cutting Chemical Wastes". An INFORM Report. INFORM Inc., (1985): p. 20.

 

610. Gyorgy, Anna. No Nukes. South End Press, Boston Mass., (1987): pp. 100-103.

 

611. Burger, John J. – Editor. Environmental Restoration. Island Press, Covelo, CA, (1990): p.123.

 

612. Clark, Mary. Contemporary Biology. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, (1979): p. 496.

 

613. Burger, John J. – Editor. Environmental Restoration. Island Press, Covelo, CA, (1990): p.123.

 

614. Ryden, Hope. Lily Pond: Four Years With a Family of Beavers. Harper Collins, New York, New York, (1990): p. 72.

 

615. Ibid.

 

616. Ibid. pp, 22-23.

 

617. Ibid. p. 23.

 

618. Ibid.

 

619. State of California Department of Water Resources. California's Groundwater. Bulletin No. 118, State of California, Dept. of Water Resources, (Sept. 1975): pp. 86-93.

 

620. Clark, Mary E. Ariadne's Thread. St. Martin's Press, New York, (1989): p. 106.

 

621. Clark, Mary. Contemporary Biology. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, (1979): pp. 223-24.

 

622. Ibid.

 

623. Ibid. Also see O'Brian, Mary. "Big Spring Iowa Studies: A Groundwater Warning". The Journal of Pesticide Reform. Vol. 7, No. 3, (Fall 1987): p. 11.

 

624. O'Brian, Mary. "Big Spring Iowa Studies: A Groundwater Warning". The Journal of Pesticide Reform. Vol. 7, No. 3, (Fall 1987): p. 11.

625. State of California Department of Water Resources. California's Groundwater. Bulletin No. 118, State of California, Dept. of Water Resources, (Sept. 1975): pp. 115-117.

 

626. Clark, Mary E. Ariadne's Thread. St. Martin's Press, New York, (1989): p. 107.

 

627. Ibid.

 

628. State of California Department of Water Resources. California's Groundwater. Bulletin No. 118, State of California, Dept. of Water Resources, (Sept. 1975): pp. 115-118.

 

629. Beckmann, Petr. The Health Hazards of Not Going Nuclear. The Golem Press, Boulder Colorado, (1976): p. 95.

 

630. Reisner, Marc. Cadillac Desert. Penguin Books, New York, New York, (1987): p. 490.

 

631. Ibid.

 

632. Ibid.

 

633. Ibid.

 

634. Ibid. pp. 491-92. Author's calculations are based on the numbers provided on these pages.

 

635. Ibid.

 

636. Ibid.

 

637. Linden, Eugene. "The Death of Birth". Time. Vol. 133, No. 1, (Jan 2, 1989): p. 34.

 

638. Ibid.

 

639. Reisner, Marc. Cadillac Desert. Penguin Books, New York, New York, (1987): p. 490.

 

640. Ibid. p. 492.

 

641. Ibid. p. 493.

 

642. Cherrington, Mark. "Engineers Savage the Future". Earthwatch. Vol. XII, No. IV, (May/June 1993): pp. 16-17.

 

643. Horton, Paul B. The Sociology of Social Problems. Eights Edition, Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, (1985): p. 417.

 

644. Ibid.

 

645. Ibid.

 

646. Ibid.

 

647. Ibid

 

648. Ibid.

 

649. Ibid.

 

650. Author's calculations based on data from – State of California, Dept. of water Resources. Evaporation From Water Surfaces In California. Bulletin No. 73-1, State of California, (May 1974): pp. 26-169.

 

651. Mott, Laurie and Marc Reisner. "Biological Hiroshima on the River". Los Angeles Times. The Times Mirror Company, (July 18, 1991): p. B-9.

 

652. Warren, Jenifer. "Sacramento River Spill Killed Aquatic Ecosystem". Los Angeles Times. The Times Mirror Company, (July 28, 1991): p. A-20.

 

653. Mermel T. W. Register of Dams In The United States. McGraw Hill Book Company Inc., New York, London, Toronto, (1958): p. 10.

 

654. Beckmann, Petr. The Health Hazards of Not Going Nuclear. The Golem Press, Boulder Colorado, (1976): p. 95.

 

655. State of California, Dept. of water Resources. Evaporation From Water Surfaces In California. Bulletin No. 73-1, State of California, (May 1974): pp. 26-169.

 

656. Author's quote.

 

Chapter X

 

657. Lappe', Francis Moore and Joseph Collins et al. Food First. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston Mass., (1977): p. 1.

 

658. Myers, Norman. "The Big Squeeze". Earthwatch. Vol. XII, No. VII, (Nov./Dec.): p. 27.

 

659. Ibid.

 

660. Pimental, David – Editor. World Food, Pest Losses, and the Environment. Westview Press Inc., Boulder, Colorado, (1978): p. 9.

 

661. Brown, Lester et al. State of the World 1992. Worldwatch Institute, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, London, (1992): p.3. Also we Brown, Lester et al. "Earth Day 2030". World Watch. Vol. 3, No. 2, (March/April 1990): p. 18.

 

662. Committee on the Role of Alternative Farming Methods in Modern Production Agriculture. Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., (1989): pp. 116-17.

 

663. Author's calculations based on figures taken from Sampson, R. Soil Erosion, Farmland or Wasteland – A Time to Choose. Rodale Press, (1981): p. 111.

 

664. Jackson, Wes et al. Meeting the Expectations of the Land. North Point Press, (1984): p. 72.

 

665. Brown, Lester and Edward C. Wolf. "Global Prospects". Not Man Apart. (March/April 1985): p. 13. Also see Borrelli, Peter. "Reinventing Agriculture". The Amicus Journal. (Spring 1984): p. 23.

 

666. "Study Reveals Worldwide Erosion". Earth Watch. Vol. XII, No. II, (Jan./Feb. 1993): p. 6.

 

667. Myers, Norman – Editor. Gaia: Atlas of Planet Management. Anchor Press, Doubleday and Company Inc., Garden City, New York, (1984): pp. 24 and 26.

 

668. Sampson, R. Soil Erosion, Farmland or Wasteland – A Time to Choose. Rodale Press, (1981): p. 125.

 

669. Brown, Lester R. and Edward C. Wolf. World Watch Paper 60. Worldwatch Institute, Washington D.C., (Sept. 1984): p. 10.

 

670. Brown, Lester R. "The Grain Drain". The Futurist. Vol. XXIII, No. 4, (July/Aug. 1989): p. 15.

 

671. Sampson, R. Soil Erosion, Farmland or Wasteland – A Time to Choose. Rodale Press, (1981): p. 124.

 

672. Ibid.

 

673. Ibid. p. 126.

 

674. Ibid. p. 122.

 

675. Ibid.

 

676. Ibid. pp. 122-23.

 

677. Ibid. p.124.

 

678. Berton, Valerie. "A Landmark Election". American Farmland. The Magazine of American Farmland Trust, (Winter 1993): p. 10.

 

679. Clark, Mary. Contemporary Biology. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, (1979): p. 152.

 

680. Myers, Norman. "The Big Squeeze". Earthwatch. Vol. XII, No. VII, (Nov./Dec.): p. 27.

 

681. Riggle, James D. "Suburban Sprawl In The Heartland". American Farmland. (Summer 1992): p.12.

 

682. Jackson, Wes et al. Meeting the Expectations of the Land. North Point Press, (1984): p. 68. Also see Energy Primer. Portola Institute, Menlo Park, CA, (1974): pp. 115-16, and Steinhart, John S. and Carol E. Steinhart. "Energy Use in the U.S. Food System". Science. Vol. 184, (April 1974): pp. 311-12.

 

683. During, Alan B. "Junk Food, Food Junk". World Watch. Vol. 4, No. 5, (Sept./Oct. 1991): p. 7.

 

684. Pimental, David. Energy Inputs and U.S. Food Security. Food Security in the United States. Westview Press Inc., Boulder, Colorado, London, (1984): p. 106.

 

685. Pimental, David – Editor. World Food, Pest Losses, and the Environment. Westview Press Inc., Boulder, Colorado, (1978): p. 12.

 

686. Author's calculations.

 

687. Gever, John et al. Beyond Oil. A Project of Carrying Capacity Inc., Balinger Publishing Company, Mass., (1986): p. 172.

 

688. Jackson, Wes et al. Meeting the Expectations of the Land. North Point Press, (1984): p. 73.

 

689. Gever, John et al. Beyond Oil. A Project of Carrying Capacity Inc., Balinger Publishing Company, Mass., (1986): p. 172.

 

690. Brown, Lester R. "feeding Six Billion". World Watch. Vol. 2, No. 5, (Sept./Oct. 1989): p. 34.

 

691. Ibid.

 

692. Brown, Lester R. and Edward C. Wolf. World Watch Paper 60. Worldwatch Institute, Washington D.C., (Sept. 1984): pp. 7-8.

 

693. Clark, Mary. Contemporary Biology. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, (1979): p. 152.

 

694. Brown, Lester R. and Edward C. Wolf. World Watch Paper 60. Worldwatch Institute, Washington D.C., (Sept. 1984): p. 6.

 

695. Rhoades, Robert E. "The World's Food Supply At Risk". National Geographic. (April 1991): p. 83.

 

696. Feldman, Moshe and Ernest R. Sears. "The Wild Gene Resources of Wheat". Scientific America. (Jan. 1981): p. 102.

 

697. Committee on the Role of Alternative Farming Methods in Modern Production Agriculture. Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., (1989): p. 7.

 

698. Olkowski, William et al. "What is Integrated Pest Management?". The IPM Practitioner. Vol. XIII, No. 11/12, (Nov./Dec. 1991): p. 1.

 

699. Ibid.

 

700. Leonard, Jonathan Norton and the Editors of Time Life Books. The First Farmers. Time Life Books, New York, (1979): p. 53.

 

701. Committee on the Role of Alternative Farming Methods in Modern Production Agriculture. Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., (1989): pp. 262, 309.

 

702. Ibid. pp. 255, 265.

 

703. Ibid. p. 264.

 

704. Ibid. p. 255.

 

705. Borrelli, Peter. "Reinventing Agriculture". The Amicus Journal. (Spring 1984): p. 30.

 

706. Ibid.

 

707. Lockeretz, William et al. "Organic Farming in the Corn Belt". Science. Vol. 211, (Feb. 6, 1981): p. 544.

 

708. Schaller, Neill. Program Director, Low–Input Sustainable Agricultural Research and Education Cooperative State Research Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington D.C., "A Look At Low-Input Sustainable Agriculture". Published remarks for the Oklahoma Agricultural Policy 1989 Conference, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, (March 28, 1989): p. 5.

 

709. Ibid. (Neill Schaller is the Program Director, Low–Input Sustainable Agricultural Research and Education Cooperative State Research Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington D.C.)

 

710. Madden, Patrick. "Can Sustainable Agriculture Be Profitable?". Environment. Vol. 29, No. 4, (May 1987): p. 33.

 

711. Lockeretz, William et al. "Organic Farming in the Corn Belt". Science. Vol. 211, (Feb. 6, 1981): p. 543.

 

712. Ibid. p. 544.

 

713. Ibid.

 

714. Dahlsten, Donald L. "Pesticides in an Era of Integrated Pest Management". Environment. Vol. 20, No. 10, (Dec. 1983): p. 49.

 

715. Committee on the Role of Alternative Farming Methods in Modern Production Agriculture. Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., (1989): p. 10.

 

716. Dahlsten, Donald L. "Pesticides in an Era of Integrated Pest Management". Environment. Vol. 20, No. 10, (Dec. 1983): p. 51.

 

717. O'Brien, Mary – Editor. "Sustainable Agriculture Gains a Toehold in Minnesota Legislature, University". The Journal of Pesticide Reform. Vol. 7, No. 2, (Summer 1987): p. 33.

 

718. Wollan, Otis. "Organic Marketplace: Still a Long Bright Row to Hoe". The Journal of Pesticide Reform. Vol. 9, No. 1, (Spring 1989): p. 22.

 

719. Ibid.

 

720. DeMarco, Susan. "A Fresh Crop of Ideas". The Progressive. The Progressive Inc., 409 E. Main St., Madison, Wisconsin, 53703, Vol. 53, No. 1, (1989): p. 29.

 

721. Popkin, Roy. "A Future for Pesticide-Free Foods?". EPA Journal. U.S. EPA Office of Communications and Public Affairs, Vol. 16, No. 3, (May/June): Chart on p. 33.

 

722. Horton, Paul B. The Sociology of Social Problems. Eights Edition, Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, (1985): p. 417.

 

723. Brown, Lester R. "The Grain Drain". The Futurist. Vol. XXIII, No. 4, (July/Aug. 1989): p. 14.

 

724. Committee on the Role of Alternative Farming Methods in Modern Production Agriculture. Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., (1989): pp. 259-260, 263.

 

725. Darr, Sheila et al. – Editors. "Intercrops that Encourage Beneficial Insects in Cotton". The IPM Practitioner. Vol. XV, No. 3, (March 1993): p.5.

 

726. Olkowski, William. "Biological Control: A Century of Success".The IPM Practitioner. Vol. XI, No. 1, (Jan. 1989): p. 1.

 

727. Ibid.

 

728. La Ganga, Maria L. "Bug Busters". The Los Angeles Times Business Section. San Diego County Edition, (Sunday, Oct. 1, 1989): Part IV, p. 5.

 

729. Quarles, William. "Alternatives to Methyl Bromide: Trichoderma Seed Treatment". The IPM Practitioner. Vol. XV, No. 9, (Sept. 1993): p. 2.

 

730. Ibid.

 

731. Ibid.

 

732. Wood, Marcia. "Microbe Blows Those Hornworms Away". Agricultural Research. Vol. 4, No. 6, (June 1992): p. 4.

 

733. Grossman, Joel. "Entomological Society of America's 1992 Annual Meeting – Part 1". The IPM Practitioner. Vol. XV, No. 2, (Feb. 1993): p. 13.

 

734. Grossman, Joel. "Horticultural Oils: New Summer Uses on Ornamental Plant Pests". The IPM Practitioner. Vol. XII, No. 8, (Aug. 1990): p. 13.

 

735. Quarles, William. "Biological Control of Post Harvested Fruit Disease". The IPM Practitioner. Vol. XV, No. 5/6, (May/June 1993): p. 3.

 

736. Ibid. p. 2.

 

737. Wood, Marcia. "Microbe Blows Those Hornworms Away". Agricultural Research. Vol. 4, No. 6, (June 1992): p. 4.

 

738. Ibid.

739. Olkowski, William and Shelia Darr. "Update: Chinese Use Insect Attacking Nematodes Against Major Pests". The IPM Practitioner. Vol. XI, No. 11/12, (Nov./Dec. 1989): p. 1.

 

740. Ibid.

 

741. Ibid. pp. 6-7.

 

742. Grossman, Joel. "Conference Notes: Entomological Society of America's 1992 Annual Meeting – Part 7". The IPM Practitioner. Vol. XIII, No. 9, (Sept. 1991): p. 9. Also see Vol. XIII, No. 3, p. 12, Vol. XIII, No. 4, pp. 2, 4, Vol. XIII, No. 5/6, pp. 19-20, and Vol. XIII, No. 7, p. 10.

 

743. De Quattro, Jim. "Micro-Pests Inflect Macro Headaches". Agricultural Research. Vol. 40, No. 5, (May 1992): p. 10.

 

744. Ibid.

 

745. Grossman, Joel. "Horticultural Oils: New Summer Uses on Ornamental Plant Pests". The IPM Practitioner. Vol. XII, No. 8, (Aug. 1990): p. 3.

 

746. Ibid.

 

747. Grossman, Joel. "Entomological Society of America's 1989 Annual Meeting – Part 5". The IPM Practitioner. Vol. XII, No. 7, (July 1990): p. 8.

 

748. Ibid.

 

749. Ibid. p. 9.

 

750. Harding, Ben. "Overcoming Greenbugs in Wheat". Agricultural Research. Vol. 40, No. 2, (Feb. 1992): p. 21.

 

751. Ibid.

 

752. Ibid.

753. De Quattro, Jim. "Rust No-More Beans". Agricultural Research. Vol. 40, No. 2, (Feb. 1992): p. 12.

 

754. Ibid. pp. 12-13.

 

755. Ibid.

 

756. Ibid.

 

757. Kenzel, Bruce. "Pitting Fungus Against Fungus". Agricultural Research. Vol. 40, No. 5, (May 1992): p. 9.

 

758. Ibid.

 

759. Dahlsten, Donald L. "Pesticides in an Era of Integrated Pest Management". Environment. Vol. 20, No. 10, (Dec. 1983): pp. 46-47.

 

760. Ibid.

 

761. Committee on the Role of Alternative Farming Methods in Modern Production Agriculture. Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., (1989): p. 124.

 

762. Mott, Laurie and Karen Snyder. "Pesticide Alert". The Amicus Journal. (Spring 1988): p. 23.

 

763. Dahlsten, Donald L. "Pesticides in an Era of Integrated Pest Management". Environment. Vol. 20, No. 10, (Dec. 1983): p. 47.

 

764. Ibid.

 

765. Olkowski, William. "Biological Control: A Century of Success". The IPM Practitioner. Bio-Integral Resources Center, Berkeley, CA, Vol. XI, No. 1, (Jan. 1989): p. 1.

 

766. Brody, Jane. "Using Fewer Pesticides Is Seen as Beneficial". The New York Times. The Environment Section, (April 2, 1991): p. C-4.

 

767. Pimentel, David et al. "Pesticides, Insects in Foods and Cosmetic Standards". Bioscience. Vol. 27, No. 3, (March 1977): p. 178.

 

768. Ibid. p. 180.

 

769. Ibid. p. 22.

 

770. Dahlsten, Donald L. "Pesticides in an Era of Integrated Pest Management". Environment. Vol. 20, No. 10, (Dec. 1983): p. 47.

 

771. Ibid.

 

772. Ibid. (All citations in this paragraph).

 

773. Ibid.

 

774. Committee on the Role of Alternative Farming Methods in Modern Production Agriculture. Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., (1989): p. 122.

 

775. Ibid.

 

776. Pimentel, David et al. "Pesticides, Insects in Foods and Cosmetic Standards". Bioscience. Vol. 27, No. 3, (March 1977): p. 181.

 

777. Ibid.

 

778. Mott, Laurie and Karen Snyder. "Pesticide Alert". The Amicus Journal. (Spring 1988): p. 20.

 

779. Ibid.

 

780. Ibid.

 

781. Mott, Laurie. "Regulations Break Down, But Pesticides Linger On". The Los Angeles Times. Part II,  (Monday, Aug. 12, 1985): p. J-7.

 

782. Mott, Laurie and Karen Snyder. "Pesticide Alert". The Amicus Journal. (Spring 1988): p. 24.

 

783. Ibid.

 

784. Ibid.

 

785. Pearlman, Nancy – Editor. "Harmful Impacts of Chemical Pesticides". The Compendium Newsletter. Vol. 20, No. 4, (July/Aug. 1992): p. 13.

 

786. Darr, Shelia, Helga Olkowski and William Olkowski – Editors. "Update Box A: Weed Resistance Builds as Herbicide Use Soars". The IPM Practitioner. Bio-Integral Resources Center, (BRIC), Vol. XI, No. 6/7, (June/July 1989): p. 2.

 

787. Ibid.

 

788. Clark, Mary. Contemporary Biology. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, (1979): p. 588.

 

789. Miller, Fred, Coalition Coordinator, Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides, "Exposure". The Monthly Journal of the Waste and Toxic Substance Project. Environmental Action Foundation, Washington D.C., (July/Aug. 1983): p. 3.

 

790. Clark, Mary. Contemporary Biology. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, (1979): p. 464.

791. Ibid.

 

792. Committee on the Role of Alternative Farming Methods in Modern Production Agriculture. Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., (1989): p. 121. For a complete treatment of this study, see Hoar, Shelia K. et al. "Agricultural Herbicide Use and Risk of Lymphoma and Soft Tissue Sarcoma". JAMA. Vol. 256, No. 9, (Sept. 5, 1988): pp.1141-1147.

 

793. Staff. The IPM Practitioner. Bio-Integral Research Center, (BRIC), Vol. XI, No. 6/7, (June/July 1989): p. 2. Also see Kloppenburg, Jack Jr. "Bio-pesticides and Economic Democracy". Global Pesticide Campaigner. Vol. 1, No. 2, (Jan 1991): p. 7.

 

794. Staff. The IPM Practitioner. Bio-Integral Research Center, (BRIC), Vol. XI, No. 6/7, (June/July 1989): pp. 1-2.

 

795. Ibid. p. 3.

 

796. Ibid. p. 5.

 

797. Ibid.

 

798. Hays, Sandy M. "Victims No One Mourns". Agricultural Research. Vol. 40, No. 2, (Feb. 1992): p. 10.

 

799. Ibid.

 

800. Ibid.

 

801. Clark, Mary. Contemporary Biology. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, (1979): p. 10. Also see Sheeline, Leonora and Barbara Bramble. "Silent Spring Return: Pesticides in the Global Environment". The Journal of Pesticide Reform. Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides, Vol. 6, No. 1, (Spring 1986): p. 30.

 

802. Ibid.

 

803. Ibid.

 

804. Heifetz, Ruth M. and Sharon S. Taylor. "Mother's Milk or Mother's Poison? Pesticides in Breast Milk". The Journal of Pesticide Reform. Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides, Vol. 9, No. 3, (Fall 1989): p. 15.

 

805. Committee on the Role of Alternative Farming Methods in Modern Production Agriculture. Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., (1989): p. 105.

 

806. Ibid. p. 106.

807. Sampson, R. Soil Erosion, Farmland or Wasteland – A Time to Choose. Rodale Press, (1981): p. 111.

 

808. Science News Staff. Science News. Vol. 136, No. 15, (Sept. 30, 1989): p. .

 

809. Science News Staff. Science News. Vol. 136, No. 16, (Oct. 16, 1989): p. 225.

 

810. Ibid.

 

811. Committee on the Role of Alternative Farming Methods in Modern Production Agriculture. Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., (1989): p. 119.

 

812. Copeland, Jeff and Penelope Wang. "Too Much Oil, Too Little Unity". Newsweek. Vol. 108, (Oct. 27 1986): p. 88. Also see Karmin, Monroe W. et al. "OPEC Searches for Those Good Old Days". U.S. News & World Report. Vol.101, (Aug. 18, 1986): p. 35.

 

813. The procurement costs levied on imported energy would need to be equal to the U.S. average fixed and true-procurement-cost for the same energy resource.

 

814. Author's calculations.

 

815. This $100 to $300 billion estimated subsidy only pertains to energy. It does not include the direct and hidden subsidies supporting the virgin materials industry which could be in the billions of dollars itself.

 

816. Hubbard, Harold R. Scientific America. Vol. 164, No. 4, (April 1991): p. 37. Also see Romm, Joseph J. The Once and Future Superpower. William Morrow and Company Inc., New York, (1992): p. 148.

 

817. Incentive based: Either the discarded product or residue is valuable enough to insure that it will be recycled and/or returned to the environment in ways that are ecologically benign or its purchase price must include a sufficient returnable deposit to achieve the same goal.

 

818. Conservation with Gary Stepheny, Director of Health, San Diego County, California, USA.

 

819. Harvey, Newton E. Bioluminescence. Academic Press Inc., New York, (1952): p. 5.

 

820. Larson, Geanne and Madge Mecheels-Cyrus. Seed of Peace. New Society Publishers, (1987): p. 118.

 

821. On the global level there are a number of conditions that could have an effect on the San Diego/Tijuana region's food security.

 

Currently, around 90 percent of the food consumed in the region is imported. Continuing population growth coupled with the accelerated loss of agricultural soils to erosion, salt build up and development, will eventually lead to higher food costs due to increased competition for food in the global market. Source: Committee on the Role of Alternative Farming Methods in Modern Production Agriculture. Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., (1989): pp. 116-117, and Brown Lester R. et al. Vital Signs 1984. Worldwatch Inst. and W.W. Norton and Company Inc., New York, London, (1984): p. 20.

 

This situation will likely be aggravated by the increasing food purchasing power in countries like China. The average per capita income in China rose 26 percent during 1992 and 1993 and is expected to rise another 10 percent in 1994. Coupled with China's increasing purchasing power is the loss of China's loss of croplands to development. Brown, Lester R. "Who Will Feed China". World Watch. Vol.7, No. 5, (Sept./Oct. 1994): pp. 12-13.

 

If this trend continues, China's still growing population will be increasingly dependent on the global supermarket for food. With 1.2 billion plus citizens, even a small increase in the per capita purchasing power can have a large impact on world food prices and availability. If the San Diego/Tijuana region was food self-sufficient or nearly so, it would be much less vulnerable to the powerful forces shaping the global supermarket of the future.    

 

822. This and other information about mechanical flywheel systems is available by calling American Flywheel Systems Inc., P.O. Box 449, Medina, WA, 98039, (206) 454-1818.

 

823. Marion, Williams and Stephen Wilcox . Solar Radiation Data for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, (1994): p. 42.